Introduction of Korean Functional Food


(Author: Kang Dong Kyoon_Institute of Agricultural Technology, North Gyeongsang Province, South Korea)
 
On November 26, 2016, at the Beijing Friendship Hotel, the Functional Agricultural Products Committee of the China Association for the Promotion of International Agricultural Cooperation held the "2016 Functional Agricultural Products Industry Development Symposium". The summary of the Korean experts' speeches at the symposium (according to the on-site translation records) is as follows:
 
Kang Dong Kyoon: I mainly study functional food related industries in Korea. Today is divided into three aspects to share with you.
 
First, the concept and market of functional food.
 
First of all, to explain what is called functional food. It mainly refers to healthy functional foods. For example, for products made from Korean ginseng, the national law stipulates that the saponin content reaches 0.8-34 ml, which is called health functional food. The amount is not reached and cannot be counted as a healthy functional food. So, to reach that standard or exceed that standard, even if it is a healthy functional food.
 
How to classify functional foods. The most important thing for functional foods should be to prevent diseases and improve our health. Functional foods are divided into one, two and three levels. For example, it is the first level that can determine the direct weight loss effect. It helps to lose weight, but the effect is sometimes second grade. It is possible to lose weight, but it is the third grade that has not been clinically tested.
 
What are the types of functional foods? Mainly divided into notice type and individual approval type. South Korea has an agency called FDA, that is, an agency that sets some standards and tests for the ingredients of a food. That organization is mainly for the purpose of sales. For the manufacture, use and preservation of a health functional food mainly for the purpose of sales, it sets a standard, that is, the notice type. Government notices to the people, that is the notice type. For example, there are about 28 kinds of nutrients, such as vitamins and protein. There are about 56 kinds of functional raw materials, mainly ginseng, ginseng, green tea, aloe and so on. Manufacturers or company bosses submit some projects, that is, they just said to submit some information to FDA, and then get approval, that is, individual approval type, not the government to announce the common people, but an individual or an enterprise to get an approval, called individual approval. Compared with the notice type, there are more kinds of nutrients and functional materials, about 206 kinds.
 
What kind of raw materials are there in the notice type? What are the amino acids, carbohydrates, fats and so on. In terms of nutrients, there are mainly various vitamins, as well as foods with selenium ingredients mentioned by everyone just now. The classification mainly includes green tea, aloe and so on. There are also fatty acids and lipids, about 14. The next is carbohydrates, that is, sugars, mainly including 10 kinds. Microorganisms were found, mainly for some biological and chemical treatment, including 2 kinds. There are amino acids or proteins left.
 
What are the types of individual approved types? Let's have a look. As mentioned earlier, there are more types of individual recognition types than notice types. What functions do they have. Enhancing immunity is one of the functions, protecting eyes, protecting bones and joints, protecting liver function, protecting blood, and then protecting cholesterol, that is, regulating the amount of cholesterol, regulating blood pressure, regulating blood sugar, anti-acidification, skin health.
 
We imported some functional foods from abroad, which reached its peak in 2009, that is, 2004-2009 was an upward stage, reached its peak in 2009, and began to decline after 2009. Why? Because the proportion of our domestic production is already increasing.
 
Some market situation of health functional food in the world. It is growing every year, which can be said to be the growth of acceleration. Is the size of the market, the United States is the largest, accounting for 38%. The second is Europe, accounting for 28%, and then Japan, accounting for 14%. Their three countries are particularly closely linked. Next is the market for health functional foods in South Korea, where the total production is growing every year. The average annual growth rate in the past five years has reached 12 points. Our domestic production and domestic use account for the vast majority, and very few are sold overseas. How to sell functional foods produced in our own country to overseas is a big problem we are facing.
 
Second, some achievements in the production of functional foods.
 
Korean ginseng accounts for the largest proportion of functional food in South Korea, but Korean ginseng has been reduced by 10% now and is expected to decrease again in the future. On the contrary, individual approved functional foods are now on the rise. What consumers need is to improve immunity, improve blood, and anti-acid. These three aspects are the most required percentages.
 
The achievement of the Institute of Functional Agricultural Products in Gyeongsang North-do Agricultural Basic Park, where I work, is to extract an acid, acidic element from apples. What function? Anti-acid, can be bactericidal, can also be antifungal and so on. There is to strengthen the muscles, reduce blood sugar, but also can achieve the effect of weight loss, can also be anti-inflammatory. The main function is to regenerate the skin and strengthen the elasticity, so it is used in cosmetics. There is also the prevention of osteoporosis, favored by the elderly.
 
Some functional substances were extracted from cinnamon, and the percentage of cinnamon functional substances reached 30%. What is the function? Is to improve blood circulation, antibacterial, and bactericidal effect. How to extract it? There are methods of heat treatment and solvent extraction. The bactericidal effect of cinnamon alone reached 150PPM, but the effect achieved when it was synthesized with perilla leaves was several times higher. Therefore, cinnamon itself has a good bactericidal effect, and then it can be synthesized together with perilla leaves to achieve a good effect. The combination of the two also helps blood circulation.
 
The function extracted from ginseng powder protects liver, also anti-cancer, and anti-allergic function. Each gram of ginseng powder can extract 22.1 mg of function, the whole project is hydrochloric acid plus ginseng powder. This is followed by heat treatment, stirring, and extraction. In order to promote the decomposition of water, heat treatment and stirring are carried out. After heat treatment and stirring, differentiation and concentration are repeated.
 
Myristyl ether extracted from Perilla frutescens has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial functions. When extracting the function, heat treatment is carried out, and then 2-3 times of heat treatment is the time when the most functional products can be extracted. The purity thereof is preferably at the time of the second heat treatment.
 
The method of extracting zeaxanthin from corn mainly obtains carotene, which can protect eyesight and resist acidification.
 
Third, the development strategy of functional food.
 
Our research references include ancient documents, such as the Compendium of Materia Medica, as well as functional DB, safety DB and material DB. The procedure of the study was to standardize the functional ingredients, conduct deeper studies, and evaluate their safety. There are some experiments on animals, experiments on humans, and then recognition, and productization. Standardization must meet the recognition of national institutions and is the minimum standard, such as raw materials and engineering, which must meet the minimum standard. Clinical experiments on animals or humans are finally recognized before they can be commercialized.
 
The registration procedure is to prepare a notice and then publish it to turn it into a law. Next is the review of raw materials, and then the declaration. The Korean Health Review Commission conducts some deliberations and, if passed, is protected by law to make notices.
 
It takes a lot of time to study functional foods, usually five to seven years. It takes one to two years to screen and identify the ingredients. Clinical trials take three years. It takes a year or two to register, deliberate, pass, and manufacture a product. When conducting clinical trials, a lot of funds and support are needed. South Korea's functional food raw material registration, as well as some food and drug offices, a legal department in South Korea, the procedures of that system are very, very difficult to pass, and have very strict requirements.
 
How to solve this problem, the first is to shorten the research time. In order to shorten the research time, we need a lot of data, that is, the database of functional raw materials. If we have a lot of ancient literature or a lot of data, we can reduce a lot of risks and shorten a lot of research time. I believe there are many ancient prose such as food and medicine in China, so it is a very big advantage in this respect. South Korea also has Korean medicine, called folk therapy, and there are many data. The next step is to build some repositories, that is to say, store all the extracted functional raw materials and use them for experiments when necessary. If there is a unified storage, if there is a person who needs to study in different places, he can immediately extract the past from there. Functional research also requires some databases, so that we can shorten the time for such audits and evaluations. Such a database must be unified and then attributed to a systematic organization and management. In this way, it will be of great help to human experiments, animal experiments, and standardized experiments, which will shorten the research time. The last one is an organization that can improve its efficiency and quickly test a large number of these functional products in a very fast time.
 
Next is a systematic, systematic and integrated aspect of money management. In order to have more systematic research and development, we have the upper and lower types. From single to diverse, we can also understand some of its incidental functions for agricultural products, and diverse functions are not single. According to the function can also be selected, is a lot of different raw materials. I give you an example, garlic, there are many functions, there is to improve blood, restore fatigue, protect liver function and so on. In terms of protecting liver function, you can take medicine, you can also take dietotherapy, and you can also do some breeding, which is the way to eat breeding food. We have to concentrate research capacity and funding in one place. We also have to emphasize cooperation. Some areas of research can be adjusted, as well as making investments more efficient, avoiding duplication, and sharing their own work. This is the authority that the person in charge can grant R & D, that is, the authority of functional food R & D. In order to successfully register healthy functional foods, people who need to review and develop, and people who research, have more exchanges. In this way, it can shorten a lot of time and be more efficient. Then, with the food and drug department of South Korea, we will communicate and coordinate the registration of this health functional food raw material at the beginning of the research, so as to avoid many problems in the future.
 
Individually approved functional raw materials can only be applied by manufacturers and income. In order to make the industry more active, it is necessary to change to anyone who can apply for the certification of healthy functional food raw materials in the future. It is necessary for us to expand the scope of functional cognition, so we need to introduce Negativelist system, in addition to the treatment of diseases, such as sleep health, or male menopausal health, etc., and then there are some foods that are between general foods and Functional foods are particularly vague and difficult to locate. We need more research on foods like this and let them have a more accurate positioning.
 
The article is from the first issue of the Journal of Functional Agriculture. The magazine is sponsored by the functional agricultural products Committee of China Association for the promotion of international agricultural cooperation and China Agricultural Publishing House. It is a magazine for industry information release and foreign cooperation and exchange. It is mainly distributed to the national Ministry of Agriculture system, local government agricultural departments, universities and related scientific research institutions, the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences system, various functional agricultural enterprises and member units of the Gong and Agriculture Committee. Its purpose is to transmit functional agricultural economic and scientific and technological information, promote the comprehensive development of functional agriculture, and serve member units.
 
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