Analysis of Key Technologies in Functional Food Processing
Functional food refers to the processing through certain technological means, so that the processed food has the effect of regulating the physiological function of the human body, beneficial to the health of the body tissue, and has a certain degree of auxiliary relief for chronic diseases. Although the nutritional value of functional foods is significantly improved compared with traditional foods, functional foods themselves cannot replace the therapeutic effects of drugs.
In order to extract high-purity food such as active polysaccharides, active peptides, active fungi, free radical scavengers and other substances beneficial to human health, to maximize the protection of functional food food safety and health care efficacy. In the process of making functional food, we should make a scientific analysis of the nutritional composition of food raw materials. On the basis of the existing technology, we should use efficient and reasonable technological means to reprocess the food, so as to ensure that the beneficial ingredients in the food materials are retained to the maximum extent, so that the processed food has the corresponding health care function.
1. Principle and application of membrane separation technology
Membrane separation technology is mainly used in the process of further separation, purification and concentration of two-component or multi-component solutions. Membrane separation technology uses the principle of selective permeability of biofilm, according to the different molecular weight of the extracted material and related physical and chemical characteristics, artificial synthesis or selection of natural polymer film, the use of chemical potential difference and other external energy, to complete the purification and separation of the target material. The preparation or selection of the most suitable polymer membrane as the main process material is the basic premise of the implementation of membrane separation technology. Therefore, it is necessary to study the physical and chemical stability and separation stability of polymer membrane.
The physical and chemical stability test of polymer membrane mainly includes the test and evaluation of the tension range, mechanical strength, heat resistance, effective pH range and whether it has physical and chemical reaction with the extraction environment. The separation stability mainly focuses on the interception efficiency, permeation flux and flux attenuation coefficient of the membrane. In the actual process of membrane separation technology, the separation efficiency of molecular membrane has a negative correlation with the flux, so in the actual process of membrane selection, the relationship between the two should be coordinated, and the separation efficiency should be improved as much as possible on the basis of ensuring the separation quality.
According to the difference between the pore size of the filtration membrane and the external energy, the membrane separation technology is divided into microfiltration, ultrafiltration, dialysis, electrodialysis and reverse osmosis, among which ultrafiltration membrane separation technology is widely used in functional food processing. The ultrafiltration membrane process is a process in which the small molecular components in the solution are filtered from the high-pressure raw material side through the molecular membrane screen to the low-pressure filtration side by relying on the static pressure drive of 0.1 ~ 0.5MPa. Ultrafiltration membranes are mostly asymmetric membranes or composite membrane structures, with low energy loss and little difficulty in operation.
Membrane separation technology plays an irreplaceable important role in the process of functional drinking water softening and sterilization, concentration and purification of biological enzymes required for fermentation functional food, extraction and filtration of polysaccharide polypeptides in plant extracts, ultrafiltration interception of soybean protein isolate and other processing links.
2. Principle and application of supercritical fluid extraction technology
Supercritical state refers to the fluid above the critical point and close to the critical point, the fluid is in a special state between gaseous and liquid, in the form of a single phase. Because the supercritical fluid takes into account the characteristics of gas phase and liquid phase fluid, that is, it has the density and dielectric constant similar to that of liquid fluid, and also retains the characteristics of high diffusion coefficient and extensibility of gaseous fluid, so it is an excellent extraction and separation solvent.
According to the relevant experimental data, the solubility of supercritical fluid can reach 104 times the solubility of the fluid in the non-critical state. Therefore, the supercritical fluid extraction technology has a strong applicability for extracting heat-sensitive or easily oxidized substances.
Considering the preparation cost, safety performance and corrosion toxicity of supercritical fluid, the most commonly used extractant in food processing is supercritical carbon dioxide fluid. Supercritical carbon dioxide extractant has the technical advantages of safety, no residue, non-toxic, no "three wastes", low energy loss and high purification efficiency, so it plays an important role in the processing of functional food.
It should be noted that when extracting alkaloids, carotenoids, amino acids or most inorganic salts, other effective solvents should be selected to complete the extraction work.
In the process of food processing, supercritical carbon dioxide has significant effects on improving the oil collection rate of seeds rich in vegetable oils, ensuring the safety of oil extraction without residual impurities, and deeply separating phospholipids from soybeans. At the same time, the extraction effect of supercritical carbon dioxide on effective bioactive substances in organisms is also very obvious.
In order to ensure that the biologically active substances are not damaged during the extraction process, it is necessary to maintain a mild and controllable physical and chemical environment in which the extraction is performed. For example, in the process of extracting unsaturated fatty acids such as DHA and EPA from fish oil, the difficulty of extracting these active substances is increased due to the characteristics of easy oxidation and thermal decomposition of unsaturated fatty acids.
Supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction technology can effectively control the extraction environment and ensure that the biological activity of the extract is not destroyed. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction technology is in functional food processing (such as: extraction of evening primrose oil in gamma linolenic acid, shrimp shell shrimp flavin and other active ingredients, removal of ginkgo biloba ginkgo phenol and other harmful substances) key technical means, its use greatly improves the processing efficiency and extraction accuracy.
3. Principle and application of ultra-high pressure processing technology
Now the more common application of sterilization technology mainly includes thermal sterilization, high-frequency electric field sterilization, electromagnetic field sterilization, microwave sterilization and radiation sterilization technology, the theoretical basis of the use of electric field and microwave sterilization technology is to convert other forms of energy into heat, so that bacteria and biological enzymes lose biological activity under high temperature conditions.
However, it is worth noting that high temperature conditions can better achieve the effect of sterilization and enzyme removal, but also cause damage to other biologically active substances that are beneficial to the human body; although radiation technology does not generate a lot of heat energy, under the action of radiation, the molecular structure occurs Not only harmful microorganisms such as bacteria are destroyed, but the molecular structure of processed foods is also easily cleaved and changed under radiation, affecting the functionality and safety of processed foods.
Ultra-high pressure sterilization technology is the use of pure physical means of the processing of food to eliminate bacteria and enzymes. In the process of ultra-high pressure processing, the temperature change of food is very small. By applying high pressure of 400-600 MPa to the processed food, the unstable chemical bonds such as hydrogen bond and ionic bond in the polymer are destroyed and the covalent bond is retained, and the biological activity of functional factors (such as small molecule fruit acid, amino acid, natural pigment and polypeptide in food) is well maintained.
Relevant research results at home and abroad show that vitamin A, vitamin B1, B2, vitamin C, pigment in fruits and vegetables, folic acid and other small molecular structures will not be damaged by pressure changes; at the same time, compared with dry thermal sterilization, ultra-high pressure sterilization technology has little effect on the molecular structure of unsaturated fatty acids and small molecular peptides, which can greatly reduce the risk of functional loss of these beneficial components. Therefore, the use of ultra-high pressure sterilization methods for functional foods containing a large number of vitamins, unsaturated fatty acids, functional polypeptides and oligosaccharides can greatly ensure that these nutrients will not be easily lost.
Ultra-high pressure technology is currently used in the field of sterilization, but the application prospect of ultra-high pressure technology is very broad. It is an inevitable trend of future technology development to use ultra-high pressure technology to transform the molecular structure of functional macromolecules or to produce new products.
4. Application and Prospect of Other Processing Technology
In the process of functional food processing, according to the difference of food type, functional factor composition and processed food form, the processing technology is not the same, and the micro crushing and ultra micro crushing technology will be applied in the processing of powdered food.
According to the different components of the processed powder, dry crushing process or wet crushing process can also be used, of which the former is widely used for airflow crushing technology and high-frequency vibration crushing technology, the latter mainly uses homogenizer and colloid mill.
The wet crushing process is based on the dry crushing process, and the ultra-micro crushing process can accurately measure the amount of micronutrient additives, which is an important means of functional food processing. Biotechnology takes genetic engineering as the core, and transforms functional food at the molecular level through the principles of fermentation engineering, enzyme engineering and cell engineering. Combining modern biotechnology with traditional food processing technology, making full use of the diversity of biological resources, and finally realizing the directional transformation of food function is a major application trend of bioengineering.
Under the existing scientific and technological conditions, some technologies in bioengineering have been successfully applied to the actual functional food processing. For example: by means of fermentation engineering instead of traditional chemical synthesis, can effectively improve the chemical synthesis efficiency is low, the synthesis cycle is too long and other disadvantages, the use of beneficial strains of rapid reproduction ability to obtain functional food main functional ingredients, for expanding the scale of functional food production, improve the final yield of functional ingredients has a great impact.
Further research and development in the field of biotechnology has a driving significance for functional food processing, and the realization of the real application of bioengineering technology in actual production still requires the unremitting exploration and efforts of technical workers and industry talents, as well as a long process of safety observation and evaluation.
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