Why should we choose organic food?
Organic food refers to all agricultural and sideline products and their processed products that are produced and processed in accordance with organic agricultural production methods, meet international or national organic food requirements and standards, and have been certified by national certification agencies, including grain, vegetables, fruits, dairy products, and poultry Livestock products, honey, aquatic products, seasonings, etc. The production process of organic food prohibits the use of any chemically synthesized pesticides, fertilizers, growth regulators and other chemical substances, as well as genetically engineered organisms and their products, so the growth environment is closer to natural conditions. In recent years, the foreign organic food market is booming, more and more favored by consumers. However, the domestic attention and recognition of organic food is not high, there are three main reasons: the lack of understanding of organic food, the domestic organic market is not standardized enough, and the price of organic food is not close to the people. In fact, in the final analysis, people do not attach great importance to food safety, and there is an uproar when something goes wrong, but usually, consumers still dominate the table with taste and lack of vigilance for food safety. In recent years, the country has vigorously strengthened food safety, but profit-seeking is the nature of capital. It depends on consumers to fundamentally reverse the direction of the market. Only by letting consumers pay attention to and understand food safety can the food industry develop green. This paper collates the scientific literature in recent years and talks about how we view organic food from the perspective of food safety and nutrition.
1. food safety risks remain high, consumers should not take them lightly
China is a big country in the production and use of pesticides. Under the promotion of relevant departments, the use of pesticides and fertilizers in my country has achieved zero growth, but the application intensity of pesticides and fertilizers per unit of arable land is still about twice that of developed countries in Europe and America. Excessive use of agricultural chemicals not only causes environmental pollution, but also brings significant risks to human health.
1. Cereal crops using a large amount of pesticides, some areas by heavy metal pollution
my country's rice pesticides, wheat and other grain pesticides are used at a high level, especially for rice, which has increased from 2-3 times in rice fields per season to more than 10 times, and the number of pesticide varieties has reached more than 15; while the number of pesticide varieties for wheat is 5-8. The less processed and nutritionally complete whole wheat flour and brown rice, the higher the pesticide residues relative to finely processed flour and rice, for example, the ratio of pesticide residues in rice to rice can be up to 30 times. In recent years, in the detection of pesticide residues in rice, the problems mainly focused on chlorpyrifos, triazophos and other organophosphorus pesticide residues.
Heavy metal pollution of arable land leads to the enrichment of heavy metals in grain. In rice, wheat and other staple grains, heavy metal pollution coexists in many types, the detection rate is high, and the problem of exceeding the standard is obvious. Investigations from the 1990 s to the present have shown that lead, cadmium and mercury in grains exceed the standard seriously. Among them, the content of cadmium in rice grains (0~2.0 mg/kg) is significantly higher than that of wheat grains (below 0.1 mg/kg). According to the survey of heavy metal pollution in grains in Shaanxi Province in 2016, the pollution of lead and cadmium in wheat flour, rice, corn and millet is more serious than other heavy metals, while the intake of nickel is much higher than other heavy metals, but lower than the maximum allowable intake stipulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency.
2. The detection rate of organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables is high, and highly toxic pesticides that have been banned are still detected.
In order to reduce pest resistance, a variety of organophosphorus pesticides are often compounded and sprayed alternately during vegetable planting. Monitoring in Maoming, Guangdong from 2016 to 2017 showed that among the 152 batches of samples with residues, 95 batches of samples with 2 or more pesticide residues were detected, the proportion was as high as 62.5, and the phenomenon of pesticide mixing was serious. In 2014, the Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences tested 54 representative open-air vegetable plots in the suburbs of Changchun. Among 7 kinds of vegetables and 214 samples, the detection rate of organophosphorus pesticides was 92.1, 11 kinds of organophosphorus pesticides such as diazinon were detected, and the organophosphorus content in 23.4 of the samples exceeded the national food limit.
Although China banned the use of highly toxic organophosphorus pesticides in agriculture in 2007, banned pesticides are still used in some places. In 2016, the Shenzhen vegetable agricultural batch market test showed that among the 8406 batches of vegetable samples that were rapidly tested positive, 1749 batches had banned pesticide residues.
3. The problem of heavy metal pollution in livestock and poultry products is prominent, and antibiotic residues are mostly detected.
Due to environmental pollution and the use of feed additives, heavy metal pollution of livestock and poultry products, especially lead, cadmium and copper pollution, is more prominent. Among them, livestock and poultry viscera are more likely to accumulate heavy metals and other harmful substances. Antibiotic residues are also important factors affecting the safety of livestock and poultry products. In 2016, the test results of 113 samples of animal-derived foods (including meat, aquatic products, milk and eggs) sold in Hengyang City showed that tetracycline antibiotics were detected in all samples, although the individual indicators were lower than the domestic standard limit, But there are still health risks.
4. The situation of illegal proliferation of genetically modified crops is grim
With the commercialization of genetically modified crops, there is a risk of illegal spread of genetically modified crops in China. At present, cereal species, genetically modified wheat and rice are not yet in real commercial operation. But soybeans and corn have been promoted in 28 countries around the world. In China's imported soybeans, the strains proved by the safety certificate of genetically modified organisms are inconsistent with the actual detection results, and other grains such as corn and wheat are often mixed. In terms of food safety, it is obviously not "the moon is more round abroad".
2. the advantages of organic food in terms of food safety
Existing studies have shown that 94% to 97% of organic fruits, vegetables and cereals do not contain detectable pesticide residues. Organic meals can reduce children's exposure to pesticides. Studies have shown that when all children who normally consume ordinary foods switch to organic foods within 5 days, almost no pesticide residues are detected in their urine.
1. Nitrate content in organic fruits and vegetables is lower than that of ordinary fruits and vegetables
Organic potatoes, carrots, cauliflower, and lettuce have fewer phosphates than traditionally grown fruits and vegetables, especially in leafy vegetables, which are reduced by about 50%. The main reason is that organic agricultural production does not allow the addition of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, so it reduces the accumulation of nitrate in plants. Most of the nitrate ingested by the human body comes from vegetables, accounting for about 80%. Nitrate can be reduced to nitrite under the action of bacteria, which has potential carcinogenic effect.
Lower levels of heavy metals in organic cereals
The same grain cereal, organic grain cadmium content is only 50% of ordinary grain. This may be due to cadmium pollution caused by the use of excessive phosphate fertilizers in traditional planting methods. Cadmium will not only lead to high blood pressure, cause cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases can also destroy bone calcium, causing renal dysfunction.
Advantages of 3. organic food in food nutrition
1. Organic milk and have more essential unsaturated fatty acids in the muscle
For example, the content of omega -3 unsaturated fatty acids in organic milk is 56% higher than that of ordinary milk, and the content of omega -3 unsaturated fatty acids in organic meat is 47% higher than that of ordinary meat. Omega -3 unsaturated fat is an essential fatty acid for the human body, and the body itself can not be synthesized, must be taken from food.
2. Organic fruits and vegetables contain beneficial substances that can reduce the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and cancer-plant secondary metabolites
The study found that the secondary metabolites in organic plants are 12% higher than those in ordinary vegetables and fruits. This is due to the fact that organic cultivation limits the use of synthetic pesticides and places more emphasis on selecting highly resistant varieties, which can produce higher secondary metabolites.
3. Organic foods contain more minerals and vitamins
The content of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and other minerals and antioxidants such as polyphenols and flavonoids in organic foods is generally much higher than that of ordinary plant foods. For example, the flavonoids in organic tomatoes are 70% higher than that of ordinary fruits and vegetables. ~ 90%. The vitamin E in organic milk is mainly 3R-α-tocopherol, which has higher activity than 2R-α-tocopherol in ordinary milk. Most studies have shown that the content of VC in organic fruits and vegetables has also increased, such as the content of VC in organic strawberries is 10% higher than that of ordinary strawberries.
At present, there are still disputes at home and abroad about whether organic food is necessarily safer and more nutritious than ordinary food, and even the official conclusions are not accepted. Of course, scientific research needs to be very rigorous, but any research needs to meet certain premises and boundary conditions, and it is meaningless to compare the results of detection and analysis under different conditions. It is clear that the prohibition of the use of chemically synthesized pesticides in the production process of organic food can fundamentally reduce chemical pesticide residues. The normal growth cycle has an impact on the growth and development, nutrients, and taste of animals and plants. The use of growth regulators such as chemical fertilizers and ripening agents is prohibited in the production process of organic food. Therefore, the planting and breeding process can ensure sufficient growth period, and the nutritional flavor of organic food is also more guaranteed. This is why organic food can be more and more recognized by people, why governments are promoting the development of organic food certification.
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