Protein Mulberry: Mulberry Leaves-Human's Natural Health Food
Mulberry leaves, also known as iron fans, are the leaves of the mulberry plant (morus alba L.). For thousands of years, mulberry leaves are not only the feed of silkworms, but also a good traditional Chinese medicine and health food. In Shennong's Materia Medica Sutra of the Han Dynasty in China, mulberry leaves are called "fairy grass", which has the effects of tonifying blood, dredging wind, dissipating heat, benefiting liver and ventilation, reducing blood pressure and diuresis. In the Summary of Materia Medica, it is recorded that "instead of tea, those who take scripture and cream are often taken to stop sweating"; In Qianmiao Fang, it is recorded: "to cure long hair is not long, it can be several feet long"; it is more clearly recorded in the Compendium of Materia Medica: "Mulberry leaves taste bitter, sweet and cold, enter the lung meridians, clear the liver, clear the eyes and ears, and fry the juice instead of tea, which can stop thirst". In these ancient books and prescriptions, not only the efficacy of mulberry leaves is clearly recorded, but also its pharmacological effects are described in detail, indicating that people have mastered the basic knowledge of mulberry leaves as medicine long ago and used for disease treatment. The folk in mulberry planting areas in China have long had the habit of feeding on mulberry leaves, and the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China has clearly approved mulberry leaves as dual-use drugs. Pay close attention to the WeChat public number (ID:niuzhendbs) of Protein Sang Xingnong for more information.
Functional Components of 1. Mulberry Leaves
1. Minerals and trace elements.
There are many kinds of minerals in mulberry leaves, and the content is rich, especially the calcium and potassium reserves are higher. 100 grams of dried mulberry leaves contain 2699 mg of calcium, 3101 mg of potassium, 6.1 mg of zinc, 44.1 mg of iron, 39.9 mg of sodium and 238 mg of phosphorus. In addition, mulberry leaves also contain trace copper, magnesium, manganese and other minerals. The calcium content in mulberry leaves was even higher than that in red shrimp or fish meal (2200 mg).
2, vitamins. Mulberry leaves are rich in vitamins, which are far better than fresh tea. 100g of dried mulberry leaves contain retinol 0.67 mg, carotene 7.44 mg, vitamin A4130U(1U = 1 μmol/min), vitamin B 1 0.59 mg, vitamin B 2 1.35 mg, nicotinic acid 4.0 mg and vitamin C31.6 mg.
3. Dietary fiber. The content of dietary fiber in mulberry leaves is extremely high, accounting for 52.9% of the dried mulberry leaves, of which insoluble plant fiber accounts for 45.0% and soluble plant fiber accounts for 7.9%. On a dry weight basis, the dietary fiber content of mulberry leaves was comparable to that of burdock (51.6 per cent), fiddlehead (53.5 per cent) and Osmunda (53.5 per cent) in vegetables.
4. Amino acids.
Mulberry leaves contain 18 kinds of amino acids (see Table 1), accounting for 10.1 of the dry weight of mulberry leaves, of which 3.281 are essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized by human body, 1.843 are semi-essential amino acids, and 0.454 are the first limiting amino acids of plant proteins. 100 grams of dried mulberry leaves in functional food factor gamma aminobutyric acid average content of 226 mg, it can be used as a neurotransmitter and has the effect of lowering blood pressure, its predecessor substance glutamic acid content of up to 2323 mg, it can maintain brain tissue function and sugar, protein metabolism plays an important role. It can be seen that mulberry leaves not only have a complete range of amino acids, but also have a high content of essential amino acids and semi-essential amino acids, which is an excellent protein resource.
5. Plant sterols.
Mulberry leaves contain a certain amount of phytosterols. 100 grams of dried mulberry leaves contain 46 mg of sitosterol and 3 mg of stigmasterol, which is 3-4 times higher than that in green tea (100 grams of dried green tea contains about 13 mg of sitosterol and almost no stigmasterol).
Mulberry leaves contain a variety of flavonoids. The total flavonoids content of mulberry leaves accounts for about 1%-3% of the dry weight of mulberry leaves, which is a kind of high flavonoids content in all plant stems and leaves. Flavonoids in 100g of dried mulberry leaves mainly contain 200-500 mg of isoquercetin, 30 mg of quercetin, 200 mg of quercetin, and 600 mg of rutin (rutin).
Mulberry leaf polysaccharide is a kind of active substance found in recent years. According to the literature, the total polysaccharide (totalpolysaccharide of Morus,TPM) extracted from mulberry leaves has a significant hypoglycemic effect on alloxan diabetic mice and human clinical trials, but the structure of the substance has a strong non-recombination, that is, the characteristics of non-artificial synthesis, artificial synthetic products can not achieve the pharmacological effects of natural mulberry leaves.
There is also a major active ingredient in mulberry leaves-alkaloids, Japanese scholars Asano and others isolated a variety of polyhydroxy alkaloids from mulberry leaves, including DNJ (1-deoxynojirimycin), fagomine, GAL-DNJ and so on. Among the plants containing DNJ found at present, the content of DNJ in mulberry leaves is the highest (the average content of DNJ in 100g of dried mulberry leaves is 114 mg), which is 10 to 100 times higher than that of the second wild plantar grass (containing 11 mg) and the third hyacinth (containing 1.2 mg). In Japan, DNJ is called the bane of diabetes. Pay close attention to the WeChat public number (ID:niuzhendbs) of Protein Sang Xingnong for more information.
9. Other components.
In addition to the above ingredients, mulberry leaves also contain superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD), fatty acids, coumarin, organic acids (including fumaric acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, succinic acid, etc.), original wood phenol, methyl salicylate, umbelliferone, tannin, flavor and other special functional ingredients.
Nutritional health value of 2. mulberry leaves
Today, there is only one kind of silkworm in the world. It only eats one kind of food for life, does not need light and does not drink water. The volume of young silkworms increased by more than 13000 times on the 18th after hatching, and they spit 1200 meters for nearly two months. They have been buried in the ground for thousands of years without decay. One cocoon pupa is equal to the nutritional value of nearly three eggs. Such a large energy accumulation only comes from a few catties of mulberry leaves, thus we can see the magic of mulberry leaf characteristics. Mulberry leaves are rich in amino acids, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, vitamins, zinc, iron, calcium and other trace elements, minerals and functional substances. They have very high nutritional and health value and are rare dietary materials. However, due to the special taste and difficult absorption characteristics of natural mulberry leaves, people's use of mulberry leaves is limited, and the "vacuum cell wall breaking technology" developed by our company fundamentally solves the above problems and creates conditions for the development and utilization of mulberry leaves.
Pharmacological and pharmacodynamic effects of 3. mulberry leaves
1, blood (urine) sugar effect. Research data at home and abroad have confirmed that alkaloids and polysaccharides are the main blood (urine) sugar-lowering active components in mulberry leaves. The experimental results show that alkaloids in mulberry leaves can significantly reduce blood sugar levels, among which alkaloids GAL- DNJ and fagomine have the strongest hypoglycemic effect. Researchers used total polysaccharides from mulberry leaves (TPM) to inject drugs into the abdominal cavity of alloxan-type diabetic mice, the results showed that the total polysaccharides of mulberry leaves (TPM) had a significant hypoglycemic effect without any toxic side effects. Human food test proved that the total effective rate was more than 95%, and the significant efficiency rate was more than 70%. Studies have shown that the hypoglycemic effect of mulberry leaves is achieved through two ways: first, the activity of disaccharide decomposing enzyme (a-glycosidase) is inhibited by mulberry leaf alkaloid DNJ, thus inhibiting the absorption of sugar in the small intestine and reducing the peak value of postprandial blood glucose; Second, mulberry leaf alkaloid fagomine and mulberry leaf polysaccharide promote the secretion of insulin by β-cells, and insulin can promote the utilization of sugar, eventually achieve the effect of lowering blood sugar.
2, lowering cholesterol, lowering blood lipid effect. The plant sterols in mulberry leaves can inhibit the absorption of cholesterol in the intestine, soften and dredge fine blood vessels, inhibit thrombosis, the total flavonoids contained in mulberry leaves can also inhibit the absorption of cholesterol, and can improve liver function, while mulberry leaves can inhibit the increase of serum lipids and inhibit the formation of atherosclerosis. According to the histological analysis of liver cancer pathological sections, mulberry leaves do have the effect of inhibiting the formation of fatty liver and reducing serum fat.
3, lowering blood pressure. The γ-aminobutyric acid in mulberry leaves has the function of lowering blood pressure. According to animal experiments, mulberry leaf powder was added to the feed of naturally occurring hypertensive mice. After continuous feeding for several days, it was found that the recurrence of hypertension symptoms was significantly reduced, which was related to the role of γ-aminobutyric acid in mulberry leaves.
4. Anti-aging effect (1) The delaying effect on the aging of the nervous system. With the increase of age, human nerve cells continue to shrink and die, which can cause the decline of advanced neural activity such as thinking ability and memory of the elderly. Mulberry leaves can promote nerve cells. The role of growth factor can protect nerve cells and prevent damage and destruction of nerve cells. Mulberry leaves also have the function of stabilizing the nervous system function, can alleviate the emotional excitement caused by physiological changes, improve the activity of superoxide dismutase in the body, prevent the production of harmful substances in the body, reduce or
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